William Patrick Allan (Whelan) was the mischievous type , perhaps a well liked trouble maker, a bit of a modern day larrikin.
His trouble making behaviour was probably always expected by his officers but was never overlooked or went unpunished, however persistent. None the less his superiors must have always seen the soldier in William.
In his final moments as an original with the 1st FCE he demonstrated the bravery and courage that proved his true soldiering spirit.
William made the ultimate sacrifice at the “Battle of Pozieres” attempting to save a mate.
“everyone said he ought to get the V.C . he went out in the very thick of the firing”
William Whelan served as William Allan and will always be remembered for his bravery, and courage. Missing from the 23rd of July, officially it was recorded he was killed in action on this day 25th July 1915.
The Australian Engineers Training Depot (AETD) was established in Brightlingsea, Essex England in 1916 and during the second half of World War I, thousands of Australian’s and many of the New Zealand troops spent time in Brightlingsea, many learning the skills of the ‘sapper’ in conditions made to mimic those on the western front.
A few of the ‘originals’ from the 1st Field Company Engineers had spent time both training and teaching new reinforcements in order to attain their commission whilst stationed at Brightlingsea.
For 100 years Brightlingsea has maintained this connection to the ANZAC’S and particularly its interest in the Engineering Corp.
2016 is the year that the Brightlingsea Museum has organised a centenary remembrance of the ANZAC and particularly its interest in the Engineers and tracing serviceman who married while stationed in Brightlingsea and later whisked their wives off to Australia.
Three “originals” did in fact get married whilst in England and transfered to the AETD.
Sappers 103 Archie Leslie Ogilvy , 140 Ernest Charles Tubbenhauer and 153 Philip James Charmichael, each of them married while in England. Although their wives were not native to Brightlingsea, the war records indicate a connection with Brightlingsea, each of them living there while their new husbands were at the AETD.
All three men would return home to Australia after the war, with their brides.
The Museum is conducting a wonderful event “Brightlingsea ANZAC Centenary weekend 17th, 18th & 19th June 2016.”
Links to the Museum and the centenary events and the BBC story are below….
While camped in Egypt during the early months of 1915, the men of the 1st FCE were tourists as well as soldiers, most of them having left the shores of Australia for the first time and very likely, none of them having ever seen the likes of ancient Egypt.
Cpl 132 Alexander McDonald was very excited about touring the sights and wrote a letter to his brother Michael and in detail described the splendid Pyramids, temples and of course the Sphinx of Cheops.
His letter was one of the earliest letters from the 1st FCE published.
“We (1st Engineers) got photoed today at the Sphinx, horses and all. I am the highest one in the picture. Pathe Freres moving picture man was busy taking our camp all day a few days ago, and I suppose the pictures will be out with you soon.” – 132 Alexander J McDonald
Alexander Joseph McDonald -This photo is owned by the descendents of Alexander Joseph McDonald, Mr Ian McDonald, descendant of Michael McDonald, Alexander’s brother and is published with their kind permission – Photo presented courtesy of Mr Ian McDonald and Diane Hewson
Ex-Woodburnite at the Front.
LETTER FROM EGYPT.
Published Richmond River Herald and Northern Districts Advertiser, Friday 5 February 1915
Sergeant A. J. McDonald, 1st Engineers, writing from Egypt to his brother,: Mr. M. McDonald, of South Woodburn,
” on 18th’ December, Sergeant McDonald says: — We went on a route march today, around the Pyramids, just at dawn, and the fog was very thick. We proceeded to the Sphinx, and I can tell you its a great piece of work. Cut out of a great, rock, the head is about 15 feet square, so it must have taken some time to carve. We next went to the Temple. This is a wonderful piece of work, and was covered in sand for about 2000 years. It was excavated a great while ago. You get into it by a tunnel. It is built of a greenish pink granite, and of great size. I suppose every piece is 50 tons weight, and all beautifully polished 4000 years B.C., still the polish is just splendid yet. You can see it is very old and all the top is of alabaster, with some granite tiles. Some of the tiles in the roof are 26 feet, long, and 10 feet, wide, by 3ft. thick. We then went about 5 miles across the Desert to another place excavated by an American syndicate two years ago. You go down a steep incline to a great depth, and find yourself in a big chamber. The floor is of greenish pink granite paves. We measured them— 10ft. x 10ft. x 10ft, 100 tons each, and all perfectly square and polished. But the best I ever saw is the tomb of the King who reined 4000 B.C named Clieesir (or something like that.) It is just beautiful, and I don’t think could be made in this age.
We took all the measurements and they were exact, The tomb was made out of one stone (granite), and brought 500 miles down the Nile. These objects are miles away from the Nile, so how did they get them here? And how did they lower the immense blocks down to this depth? It beats all present day science. The Pyramids are about 350 yards each angle, and about 1500 yards in circumference. There are two large ones, and some smaller ones. They are 451 feet high, and coming to a point at an angle of about 45 degrees. Some of the stones are 100 feet from the ground, are 76 feet long, and 10ft x 10ft, so how did they get them there? It beats creation. I have not yet been inside them, but I will tell you at a later date what it is like there.
Its proclamation day today, and the ceremonial part takes place on Sunday, when Cairo will have 50,000 troops participating in the function. Egypt is going to be a British protectorate after this. We might go to France in two months, if things are quiet here, and I hope we do, as it is nothing but sand here — hills and dales and everything, barring the Nile valley. It’s just starting to get hot, and the sand makes it ten times worse.
We (1st Engineers) got photoed today at the Sphinx, horses and all. I am the highest, one in the picture. Pathe Freres moving picture man was busy taking our camp all day a few days ago, and I suppose the pictures will be out with you soon.”– Source: nla.news-article125934877 -Published Richmond River Herald and Northern Districts Advertiser, Friday 5 February 1915
We remain uncertain if Alexander McDonald is on the left or right at the highest point on the Sphinx, either way he is certainly among his mates from the 1st Field Company Engineers and the sphinx photo will always remain a historic and lasting memory of this unique company of men.
Alexander may never have seen this photo, sadly he died from wounds he sustained on landing day at Gallipoli, his own story linked here.
Clearly identified in the sphinx photo are the officers of the company in front standing aside their horses and the local guide seated.
Original photo – Courtesy Jack Moore Private collection
A special thank you to Jack Moore for providing a digitised photo of the 1st FCE. This is owned by Jack Moore son of 101 John Hoey Moore DCM who has kindly granted permission to use this photo.
Photo of 132 Alexander Joseph McDonald -This photo is owned by the descendants of Alexander Joseph McDonald, Mr Ian McDonald, descendant of Michael McDonald, Alexander’s brother and is published with their kind permission – Photo presented courtesy of Mr Ian McDonald and Diane Hewson
The men of the 1st Field Company Engineers – Original photo – Courtesy Jack Moore Private collection
Original photo – Courtesy Jack Moore Private collection
AWM A02468 -Troops of the 11th Battalion and 1st Field Company Australian Engineers assembled on the forecastle of HMS London, part of the fleet which carried the Australians from Lemnos for the Gallipoli landing at Anzac Cove. HMS Bacchante is steaming ahead. Photo taken by Ashmead-Bartlett, Ellis
Gallipoli Landing – AWMJO3022
Courtesy – “Bob Lundy- Private Collection”
Group – Egypt Shoosmiith Family Private Collection
Big tent – courtesy “Bob Lundy Private Collection”
Trevor Lawton’s discovery decades ago of the ” FIRST ‘s “, challenged the war history books, and up against the heavyweights of Canberra, his research and the story of the men of the 1st Field Company Engineers fell on deaf ears. Trevor had “peaked too early” and his extensive research and his story has been patiently maturing like a good wine.
Now in the centenary years of ANZAC, that has all changed and Trevor’s early work and continued passionate campaign is not only welcomed but as he has so kindly stated, his work has found a home …”the ideal setting”.
Please read Trevor’s own story of the 1st Field Company Australian Engineers. As he so fondly calls them the FIRST’S, he dedicates the opening chapters to the recognition of the Engineers both at ANZAC and the enormous work by the Engineers performed at Mudros before the landing campaign.
Trevor has no direct family connection to the men, and has no agenda other than being passionate about the truth, and that the fine men of this company be fully recognized and their true place in history is recorded.
He is a true campaigner. His story is rich with detail, it raises some intriguing questions and is enlightening. It gives great encouragement to continue to tell the story and share the lives of the men of the 1st Field Coy. Engineers AIF.
And as Trevor so simply states … it helps us continue to “join the dots”.
Trevor Lawton gives his own back story to his early discovery……..” Two letters to editor , Two buildings facing each other”
“So began my search to unravel the mystery of the presence of the engineers at the landing.
Sparked by the two letters I came across, more years ago than I care to remember. One misfiled at the Australian War Memorial, the other in a local paper both appearing early in WWI.
The other building, the (old) and (new) Parliament House where I worked for 20 years as a researcher and in management of Parliamentary Library….. when all was done without the aid of electronics, except ‘typing’…….only microform or hard copy. No button pressing, no instant answers. I took early retirement to spend hours of research on soldiers and their stories, not WW1 battles.
There were few answers to those intriguing letters till electronics delivered up Sapper diaries this century…I had ‘peaked’ too early before digitization’s of records…then came Vance’s website, the ideal setting for what follows…. I hope readers of his site will continue the quest to join the dots up….on the engineers’ story! In a previous life in a galaxy not so far away, but long long ago, I was a high school teacher, and later a research officer in Bureau of Agricultural Economics, hence my attention/ emphasis on “local”. There was little interest in such a story in the nation’s capital………” TWL. (Trevor Lawton)
THE LANDING 25 APRIL 1915 ANZAC COVE
REMEMBERING THE STILL OVERLOOKED FEW -THE ENGINEERS
NEW SOUTH WALES – WAS AT THE FOREFRONT.
William Echlin Turnley stood on the crowded deck of the troopship Afric peering intently into the harbour the ship convoy was entering. What he saw alarmed him. He with several thousand Australian and New Zealand troops of the First Contingent (my “First Fleet”) was now ending his voyage, the Sydney-Emden triumph still fresh in their minds. The convoy was not entering an English port as expected when leaving Sydney but Alexandria Harbour Egypt. There moored unhindered in front of him were some twenty four German merchant ships, two-thirds the number of ships the soldiers had travelled across the seas.
A very confronting close-up first exposure to the enemy. There was nothing he could do. (These ships were as yet idle; captured German prizes-of-war).
William Turnley could not know then that he as part of 1,500 Australian troops the first of any troops to land that fateful day, would be swapping the 36 or so troopships for 36 small rowboats heading pre-dawn towards another foreign shore…Gallipoli…Sunday 25 April 1915…Anzac Day. The 1,500 in the First Wave were part of a Covering Force of 4,000 men to prepare the way for 1 and 2 Brigades to land, in reverse order.
He later knew as a survivor, New South Wales was represented together with the “outer states” in that First Wave. When back home he would try to explain it was.
Today we still do not recognise NSW’s presence. He, Turnley would later realise he and his mates in the lead or at the forefront of the first to land rowed not into the history books but historical oblivion.
Very few of the NSW recruits actually perished early morning or that day. They have simply been overlooked then or forgotten since in the past 100 years. On landing their skills were not immediately needed, for what they expected was not there. Their other non-combatant skills were needed: these too have been largely overlooked.
WHY GALLIPOLI ?
As part of General Sir Ian Hamilton’s “rapid flinging”of troops ashore at the Gallipoli peninsula that day to try to free up access to Russia, 1,500 Australian soldiers from the so-called 6 infantry companies (Coys) made the first landing that day. They landed at only one of the six beaches chosen by him. Unlike at the other five beaches the Australians ultimately landed pre-dawn for surprise, with no preceding naval shelling bombardment announcing their arrival.
Weatherwise, “the end of April offered up the chance of a few days of consecutive charm” … for such an enterprise. “If it had been British weather the adventure would have to be given up” Hamilton later wrote.
As it was, the 6 landings were postponed two days because of strong winds.
Overlooked in the story of the Australian First Wave were members of a 7th company – the engineers, who were soldiers but not infantry. These men, sappers, were members of the 1st Field Company Australian Engineers (1FCAE), “the First engineers”.
In writing Volume I of the official history, 600 plus pages dealing only with the first phase to 4 May 1915 of the Gallipoli Campaign, the Official Historian CEW Bean lamented “Of the Landing…there exists no such record…from which even the shortest history could be written”.
His diaries, records of conversation and communication were all he had. (He acknowledged the contribution of 130 prominent soldiers etc and some 20 overseas official sources in enabling him to achieve publication of Volume I in only two years).
His history noted the First engineers were to be part of the First Wave ashore when the landing was being planned. To the detriment of subsequent histories thereafter, it did not give any reasons or other details for their presence. Recorded only was the number of First engineers landed up to 1 May 1915, 7 officers, 158 other ranks.
Consequently, 69 First engineers became the still overlooked few. Their omission from the official record and subsequent histories for the past century means now there are more questions than answers e.g. did the engineers land in their own boats or were they mixed with the infantry in the First Wave(?).
As fewer than 500 men from three Australian engineer companies landed that day out of some 15,000-16,000 men such an oversight is understandable. Lt Gen Birdwood reported at 4.30pm 13,000 men were ashore but the 13 and 15 Battalions (Bns) had not yet landed. They were too late for action that day.
Over 27,000 men landed at Anzac Cove by 1 May 1915 a tribute to the Royal Navy second squadron under Rear Admiral Thursby using over 20 ships including chartered vessels. In all over 200 ships were used for the landings at the 6 beaches.
One-fifth (some 5,400) of the 27,000 men at Anzac Cover were not in Australian or NZ Bns.
Most were from the Royal Naval Division, “Winston’s Little Army”. These soldiers surplus reservists to the Royal Navy were also sailors. On the day, they made a feint or dummy landing from the sea at Bulair north of the Cove before then rushing back to the Cove.
Landed also were the Ceylon (Tea) Planters’ Rifle Corps (151 men said to be Gen Birdwood’s bodyguards), the (Jewish) Zion Mule Corps (246), the Indian Mule Cart Transport Corps (229) and various gun batteries mainly from the Indian Army.
WHY WERE THE ENGINEERS THERE?
There were few clues or answers, either in the official records or to date in unofficial sources such as the soldiers’ letters, photographs, diaries and so on.
Official orders issued by Major General Bridges on 18 March 1915 (Operation Order No.1) and by Colonel Sinclair MacLagan to the 3 Infantry Brigade on 21 March 1915 contained virtually no information. These Brigade troops were recruited from the “outer states”, Qld, SA, WA and Tasmania. MacLagan’s orders simply listed three Engineer Demolition Parties (each to contain 23 First engineers, it transpired from two official Bn diary entries but their attachment to three of the six Bn Coys was not specified nor explained).
The only clue to any attachment was given by William Turnley. The Firsts were to team with a 9Bn Coy for special demolition work at Gaba Tepe promontory. At the planning stage, it would seem 3 gun batteries were identified for capture hence 3 demolition parties(?).
Even the First engineers’ war diarist could record little of the landing as the three demolition parties were spread over three different battleships and later (three?) small boats. After landing all he could record was “it was some time before sufficient sappers could be assembled to commence a road (11.45am) to get guns, water and ammunition to the troops higher up”.
Overlooked were any of the engineers’ other activities that day particularly of some 14 First engineers who “beached” separately that afternoon in a very unusual landing. Complicating matters, the First engineers belonged to 1 not 3 Brigade.
The remaining First engineers minus two officers, ten horse drivers and unspecified Coy HQ details landed with the Reserve 12Bn as did the remaining 6 Coys of the three Bns from destroyers in the Second Wave. That wave seems to have landed sooner than the half hour behind the First Wave indicated in orders reflecting the urgency to get inland, or the efficiency of the Royal Navy.
The Firsts were to rendezvous at map reference Square 224Q6 to undertake their tasks; principally road making and water searching. Uncertainty still remains on when and where the First Engineers landed in the Second Wave.
By now 48 small boats were employed for the landings(?).
Letters to the press by engineers Tom Newson, Queanbeyan Age and William Turnley, Sydney Morning Herald in June 1915 and May 1917 gave intriguing clues (my first and only, over 25 years ago) to the engineers’ elusive presence. Newson wrote of a “barbed wire and demolition party”, Turnley of NSW’s presence in the first to land. The next batch of war news in the press or by dreaded telegram quickly led to any such unofficial clues being overlooked or forgotten in the tumult of those days.
Later, photographs also provided clues. One showed a First engineer demolition party on board a battleship (HMS London) with WA 11Bn soldiers going to the landing (AWMAO2468). Another showed the body of an Australian engineer on the beach the first engineer to fall after landing (AWM A1090). There is still no official identification.
Later research or mention of individual First engineers sometimes referred to them being “among the first to land”. These included Gordon Wilson from Minmi NSW (his funeral in1929 after a car accident was attended by Charles Kingsford Smith and Charles Ulm), Tom Newson from Duntroon, Ernie Murray from Canberra and Roy Denning from Yass. But the reasons for their presence still remained unexplained.
110 Gordon Campbell Wilson M.C, A.F.C, DCM and M.I.D
157 Frederick Thomas Newson
151 Ernest Murray
213 Roy Denning – courtesy ” Anzac Digger” Roy Denning
Unless the official records yield more answers, soldier accounts in their various forms including Reveille become the prime sources for answering these questions. Here the research of 229 First engineers being conducted by Vance Kelly offers hope. But as the Official Historian warned soldiers’ recollections will yield different and often conflicting answers as anyone who has read WWI Red Cross files will readily attest.
THE FIRST ENGINEER TO FALL
Five First engineers are recorded as dying that day, with four reportedly killed in action in the First Wave.
Captain Vernon Sturdee did not go ashore until 9am well after the Covering Force had landed. He accompanied the Chief Engineer HQ to inspect the search for water by the Second engineers near Dawkins Point. Later they would inspect the road at rear of Plugge’s Plateau commenced under shrapnel fire by the First engineers just before noon.
Even later the Captain would certify the burials at sunset in one grave of four engineers in Shrapnel Valley Cemetery. Sunset later became the safest time for conducting burials. Row 1C now contains these as separate graves.
In order they are of:
– Fred Reynolds, 20, single, electrical engineer from Manly NSW, (born Wellington,
– Walter Freebairn, aged 22-29?, single, tailor from Surry Hills, Sydney (born
– William Moore, 27, single, sawyer, originally a first reinforcement enlisting
Melbourne (born London, England); and
– Cleveland Edmund Page, 23, single, plumber, associated Auburn NSW, (born East
Maitland recorded as Newcastle, NSW).
191 Spr. Frederick Austin Reynolds
55 Spr. Walter Freebairn
246 Spr. William Moore
70 Spr. Cleveland Page – Photo Courtesy of Catherine Job – Family Collection.
Fred Reynolds, (regarded as the first man ashore by the family of one of his three cousins killed in the war) received posthumously a Special Mention in Despatches for Conspicuous Gallantry or Valuable Services 25 April– 5 May 1915 (MiD) by General Hamilton.
Accounts of his death vary from being the first killed in the boats to the first engineer to fall ashore.
One of his three cousins Cpl Claude Campbell 17 Bn (buried Cairo from wounds at Quinns Post) happened to be taught Sunday school at Nelanglo near Gundaroo NSW, where his father was school teacher, by my grandfather; my only connection with the engineers.
Gordon Wilson received a similar commendation for work later that day.
The fifth engineer died of wounds on the troopship turned hospital ship Clan McGillivray later that day. He was shot while giving orders that morning on the deck of an unknown destroyer. The Scourge has been suggested but as it was the ship used to convey the wounded to the now hospital ship Clan McGillivray the answer remains unclear. He was Alexander Joseph MacDonald, married, carpenter, aged 30 of Glebe Point, Sydney. (Born Braidwood, NSW, also buried row 1C.)
They were and are still five of the overlooked few….
Eyewitness accounts identified three of the five, only when three sappers’ diaries emerged this century. (These diaries were foremost in starting to unravel the mystery of the Firsts’presence.)
– William Moore by his namesake Jack Moore, (associated 10Bn from HMS Prince of Wales);
– Cleveland Page, by Thomas Drane, (associated 11Bn from HMS London); and
– Alexander MacDonald by Roy Denning. He, the last engineer to die that day was not in the First Wave, nor was Denning.
Engineers Moore and Page were killed on the beach on landing most likely from sniper fire.
Diarist William Turnley, (associated 9Bn from HMS Queen) mentions a sapper, unnamed, who was shot and killed the third time he assisted a wounded soldier ashore. That assisted soldier may have been from the Second Wave. First engineer Warrant Officer (WO) Pantlin later recounted (1932) Spr Reynolds had safely gained the shore but on returning to assist a wounded man was killed by a head shot.
Colonel Lee, Commanding Officer (CO) 9Bn, told Pantlin he would recommend Spr Reynolds for a decoration resulting in the MiD. As WO Pantlin led the party which landed on North Beach north of the Cove, he relied on Col. Lee as the eyewitness, an example of how individual soldiers readily incorporated recollections by other soldiers into their accounts.
Turnley also referred to a “fellow” who on landing unconcernedly took out his camera and started taking photos(?).
A GLIMPSE OF THE ENGINEERS’ PURPOSE
In the landing story, time and distance have been two of the major bedevilments confusing what happened, when and where (on the water, on the beaches or on the ridges and gullies) as events unfolded that pre-dawn.
Another is not enough First Wave accounts, if extant, having been identified then and now.
The result is Second Wave accounts mainly from officers on the destroyers predominate in the Official History and subsequent histories. The First Wave has generally been passed over for lack of information or described only in the briefest of terms.
That the engineers were not infantry may have some small influence on how the story was told as did perhaps the overseas origins of many engineers. These are far less likely explanations.
The following glimpse should be viewed against such a confused background e.g. on times recorded in the official diaries, the Reserve 12Bn landed before the First Wave.
William Turnley, telephone mechanic originally from England as well as diarist, sat anxiously in his boat as did all the 1,500 during the long time of the tow of the 36 boats.
Discovery by the Turks was feared. They were seen. A shot was fired. They rowed frantically to shore. His boat was fouled on landing when another boat swung around. That boat carrying 9Bn A Coy(?) is believed by many to have landed before the first shot.
Turnley thought the engineers were among the first dozen to set foot on that part of the beach(?). He with 22 other sappers was to “blow up” the guns on Gaba Tepe promontory after the Qld Bn Coy had seized them. These guns, protected by barbed wire visible offshore, were 1 mile (1.6km) south of their intended landing, Brighton Beach south of Anzac Cove.
Because of the two deviations north in their tow, he estimated they were now 2,500 yards (2.6km) away. He heard “the spasmodic chatter”of a maxim gun on the leading steamboat to be fired as ordered “only if imperative to effect a landing”. Gun cotton was part of his equipment but he lost his spiking tool/s on landing.
9Bn B Coy was meant to take Anderson’s Knoll half a mile (800m) inland(?).
No-one got to the guns that day. The seizing of these guns, General Bridges stressed, was essential to the success of the Landing.
The main aim of the Landing, expected to be opposed, was to prevent Turkish reinforcements further north of the Cove and Mal Tepe inland from moving south to Cape Hellas, where the main attack was to take place. Hellas was not protected by “an elaborate network of trenches”- (Hamilton), yet six VCs were won that day.
If need be, the Anzac Landing could be a major feint but re-embarkation, as Birdwood urged, was impossible, leading to Hamilton’s “dig, dig, dig” entreaty.
Jack Moore (associated 10Bn, ? Coy) a mechanical engineer originally from NZ was detailed to an oar in his boat as it only had two naval ratings to row it. He thus had his back to the shore and was not first out of his boat. He did not mention the “skirmish” between two boats, one occupied by AG (“Gertie”) Butler 9Bn Medical Officer and the other boat Lt Talbot Smith 10Bn Scouts as noted by Bean. One possibility is he was in a separate engineers’ boat(?).
Moore’s boat may have been the first of all to land. He expected to encounter barbed wire and spiked pits on Brighton Beach. Carried by him were a wire cutter and grappling hook with stout rope 100 feet long (30m) to drag the barbed wire once cut aside so the infantry could charge.
There was neither wire nor staked pits, just largely recently vacated trenches. He did not mention any guns to be “blown up” so with no barbed wire he joined the bayonet charge.
Around noon the next day he was ordered back to the beach to help build a “wharf”.
Tom Newson (HMS London?), the English carpenter from Duntroon and letter writer to The Queanbeyan Age, was also in a barbed wire cutting and demolition party. He landed “2 miles (3.2km) north of Gaba Tepe ” promontory and “our boat was the first to land”.
He joined the bayonet charge and shouted till he was hoarse. He “would never forget that day”. He did not mention the guns…
Thomas Drane (HMS London, ? Coy), a tailor, also from England and Forbes NSW, was in the first boat “nearest the enemy” on the north side of Anzac, the one party meant to land on the Cove. His boat it seems landed last of those carrying the demolition engineers as it was further offshore. He did not know why they landed in the “wrong place”, later told it was “the current”. The associated 11Bn Coys were meant to seize the high ground at Scrubby Hill and further north Battleship Hill.
Drane did not state his purpose. WO Pantlin leader of that party stated later their objective was to “blow up” the guns.
Drane lost his sandbag containing a small pick and shovel on landing but kept his rifle. His “coldest Turkish bath ever” confirmed General Hamilton’s “like lightning they (theAustralians) leapt ashore”. He joined the bayonet charge and “must have gone 5 miles [8km] before 9am that day”, perhaps “one of the more adventurous spirits” noted by Bean.
He worked on a captured trench that night on the second ridge and did not rejoin his company till two days later to find he had been reported missing-in-action. Both Turnley and Drane, wounded shortly after, were discharged medically unfit in 1916.
Moore severely wounded in the shoulder May 1915 did not resume front line duty until August 1916 with another engineering Coy, 14FCAE.
About 6.30am that morning the Nizam steamed slowly allowing Henry Bachtold, an honours engineering graduate from England promoted to full lieutenant that day and up to 13 First engineers (his accounts vary) to offload three rafts and “pontoon equipment” into the sea.
Lt Bachtold led the first reinforcements on Berrima from Melbourne in December 1914. By 8am they had linked these together but it would be 1pm before a destroyer could tow the assembly to within 200 yards (208m) of Anzac Beach. They succeeded in getting to shore to erect the first pier. The Australian Army Medical Corps used it immediately to evacuate the wounded, the severely wounded to the hospital ship Gascon, the less severely to the Clan McGillivray, the Firsts acting as traffic control.
Over four days 4 piers, two largely from broken barges, were erected, feats seemingly unnoticed in any Anzac history. THUS…
The First engineers recruited in NSW were a small and potentially significant part of the First Wave to land. The “mother state” as claimed by William Turnley in 1917 was at the forefront if not the lead of that wave.
There is now more to vindicate his claim. The absence of barbed wire and the failure of the infantry to capture the guns (other than three Krupp guns by 8am) largely explains the engineers’ omission from the Official History(?). Also missing was their other activities. (Even the engineers’ history is vague on that day)
One surprising aspect, however, was the1930s debate of the first man ashore did not lead to the First engineers being considered. At the time 1937-38 the Official Historian gave support to “tradition” i.e. Lt Duncan Chapman was the first man ashore. Seemingly Major JC Robertson for one had disappeared to be replaced by Lce Sgt Joseph Stratford, born NSW, promoted by The Sydney Mail.
Arguably given the role of barbed wire removal, a First engineer was likely first ashore(?). This “conclusion” may conflict with orders that an officer was to land first, other ranks remaining seated. These orders presumably applied only to the infantry(?). At an Afric reunion in 1932 WO Pantlin claimed Spr Reynolds was the first ashore. His statement did not gain much traction and failed to attract the attention of the Official Historian at that time(?).
By the 1960s Bean acknowledged that Chapman was probably the first ashore.
Perhaps by the end of the Centenary Years and the completion of Vance Kelly’s work many of these questions(?) will have more complete answers. Given the confusion surrounding the day’s events, definitive answers may not be forthcoming. Such outcomes will ease the angst of the citizens of Maryborough Qld who raised funds to erect a statue of Duncan Chapman before the Centenary and serve to modify Kiwi glee from thinking a Maorilander was the first ashore…
The Second engineers, also overlooked, landed 6.30-7am with similar tasks, water supplies and road making at MacLagan’s Ridge and Shrapnel Valley. They were to land with grapnels and bags to deal with barbed wire. Later, a party of them would be detailed to assist with pier construction.
Another, the Third engineers landed later that morning having been replaced by the First engineers in the First Wave even though they had returned from canal defence to Mena Egypt shortly before the 3 Brigade departed for Lemnos.
Their diary has no entry for that day but constructing water slides was an earlier activity.
The First engineers colours? A purple patch issued only weeks before to be worn on the shoulder.
REMEMBERING THE FIRSTS OF THE OVERLOOKED -FIRST ENGINEERS LANDINGS AND INTENDED LANDINGS.
The small boat grounded near shore. William Turnley may have followed Lt Mather in leaping over the side into the water to wade to land(?). Lt Mather was the first of any troops to land. He was a First engineer: an original of the company formed Sydney August 1914.
His landing was two days after the 3 Brigade and First engineers had reached their destination. Within four days two other sections of the Firsts had gone ashore.
Ahead of Lt Mather lay a windswept, stony landscape but green, unlike the familiar sand of Egypt. This land was to be a staging post for that now not-so-distant shore….. Gallipoli………the Greek island of Lemnos.
The First engineers could not know then that this might be their first rehearsal for a later first landing by them.
It was early March 1915. They did know a small party of 21 First engineers had already left from Egypt to go to the Dardanelles Straits to be part of an intended landing demolition party later on 18 March 1915: the day of the Royal and French Navies’ attempt to capture the Dardanelles Straits.
There was much to do on the island, and the First engineers with others may not get all done before they moved again. Troopships from England and France were beginning to mass in the area. The 3 (Australian) Brigade was already in Mudros Harbour, Lemnos.
MUDROS HARBOUR LEMNOS
The First engineers as the first ashore had first to ensure the adequacy of water supplies as instructed by GHQ, Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. This included examining the water supply used by the “old town” from springs in the hills, digging wells for watering animals and erecting a new pier on a “spot considered suitable by the Naval Authorities”.
Then because there were no port facilities, they had to prepare aids to allow the transport ships to land their cargoes and have the harbour ready to cater for the coming vessels. William Turnley after two months in Egypt had more to occupy his mind now than the German merchant ships anchored in Alexandria Harbour Egypt. Leaving Australia in October 1914 with the First Convoy seemed so long ago. In sailing from Sydney the Firsts and the Australian Army Service Corps occupied the fore of the Afric with 1Bn 1 Brigade aft.
His unit had brought wagons and 56 horses with them on another ship from Sydney.
While at Mena Camp, the Firsts helped “terrorise” Cairo with subsequent pay fines or other penalties. As well as enduring training and routine drills in the sinking sand, they erected at least two bridges then dismantled them.
Demolition training seems not to have been mentioned at all, other than very early training in Sydney Harbour. Some engineers did examine the guns on the battleship before resting to be ready for landing pre-dawn.
On 28 February 1915, the remaining First engineers sailed with 3 Brigade from Egypt to Lemnos island. They took 1 NCO, 10 (horse) drivers and 22 horses with them on another ship, Devanha. Earlier, on 14 February 1915, two pontoon wagons and one trestle wagon each constructed at the railway workshops Cairo and 19 draught horses were taken on strength. Eleven more men followed on 23 February as drivers of the pontoon and trestle waggons, the Chief Engineer HQ recorded. These additions cannot be confirmed as there was no 1FCAE diary for that month. No engineers’ horses nor waggons landed at Anzac Cove because of the terrain. All horses were thus returned to Mex near Alexandria, Egypt in June under WO Pantlin. He was then retired from the Army on age grounds. Some (one?) of the drivers possibly beached with the first pier(?).
As part of the attempted Naval Forcing of the Dardanelles, the landing demolition party comprising 20 sappers under Lt Huntley of the First engineers had combined with four officers and 200 other ranks of Chatham Battalion of the Royal Naval Division. They sailed on the Cawdor Castle to the Straits only to witness the loss or damage to French and British naval ships from Turkish mines.
They did not land for demolition work so arrived back at Lemnos on the Suffolk late March. [Lt Huntley, the First engineers’ leader for that party, from the delightfully named Snail’s Bay Balmain, later died of wounds 4 May 1915. He had two funerals: a burial at sea from the hospital ship Gascon; and a burial on Gallipoli as a photograph of his grave later showed(?).]
“DOINGS” OF THE FIRSTS
Water supplies remained inadequate despite engineer efforts in building a reservoir. They sank six wells to an average depth of 26 feet (6+ metres) but total supplies were reckoned to be adequate only for a few thousand men. The 1 and 2 Brigades from NSW and Victoria respectively were thus shipped back to Egypt. So was the Royal Naval Division minus
engineers. The 3 Brigade, apart from 9Bn and sometimes 10Bn, stayed mainly on board ships in Mudros Harbour.
Raft construction was an onboard engineer activity. However barrel piers were not used for the first piers. The ship Armadale apparently carried them(?). [No further information has been sought by me].
To remedy the lack of port facilities at Mudros, the engineers in the few weeks they were there combined at times with the Royal Naval Division engineers and 9 (Australian) Bn to build port, landing, communications and navigation aids. Shore beacons and signal hut/barracks were erected for the Royal Navy at the narrow mouth of the harbour.
The First engineers also began to erect, as instructed by “the Naval Authorities”(?) a stone jetty 75 yards (78m) long with assistance from 9Bn making a road to it from Mudros village mid March in “cold wet windy conditions”. The jetty may not have been completed. As well the Firsts unloaded HMS Pickaxe. Further unloading and restowing of ships wrongly loaded before leaving England and Egypt was completed as was assisting moving a stationary hospital ashore, using a hopper dredge from the Royal Navy. Some road repairs were done.
This following photographs are from an album of a R.N.D. officer [courtesy of Maurice Stokes (UK) and Bernard de Broglio (Aus)].
These show, as captioned –
“Pier building at Mudros March ’15
1. The R.N.D. Engineers
2. The Australians”
Note the shipping in the background.
Also noteworthy was the Firsts’ attempt to float assembled rafts and pontoons as a pier across Mudros Harbour only to crash on landing and the assembly break up.
THE LANDING TAKES SHAPE
On 10 April, the Firsts learned they were to be part of the first landing party on Gallipoli together with 5 or 6 unspecified infantry Coys. They practised for a few days with the chosen 6 companies in disembarking from troopships (battleships on the day) rushing ashore from small boats etc. The intended landing was postponed two days by strong winds.
Because of other equipment to be carried the engineers were to carry 50 rounds only of ammunition. So 69 First engineers came to land at North Beach (23) and Anzac (46), rather than the Cove and Brighton Beach to the south. The first pier was erected and within a few days sandbag walls were erected for shelter from shrapnel around an Australian and separate NZ dressing station on the beach.
Many of the skills practised previously, including pier erection(?), were used by the First engineers that day. And a few of them had extensive military or militia experience at times as long as the time they had spent training for their professional/trade vocations. On route from Australia to Egypt, this experience showed when the Firsts easily defeated the infantry in a rifle drill competition, winning first and second prize, the Australian Army Service Corps coming third and fourth, the six infantry entries thereafter.
To the then official press representative CEW Bean in his first report on the landing, reproduced in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette 17 May 1915, the First Wave seemed to consist “largely of miners from Broken Hill and Westralian goldfields”. He was not sure which boat landed first as many seemed to land at the same time. That time was 4.18am. He did not go ashore until about 10am that morning.
No First engineers were miners. Yet they well and truly earned the titles of “sapper” and “digger” in the next 4 years. The Engineers motto then? “We make and we break”.
REMEMBERING THE FIRST DAY FALLEN THE BIGGER PICTURE
In recounting the Australian Landing story the bigger picture has prevailed to the detriment of detail such as knowing how many died that day, their names or who they were. Our story and remembrance have suffered from such oversights.
Some First Day Gallipoli Honour Rolls e.g. by the then now revived former ADFA AIF Project or by the Australian Light Horse Studies Centre have appeared in recent years mainly on the internet without seeming to attract much widespread public attention(?).
The still overlooked few thus increases to more than one thousand men when added to the overlooked First engineers.
Unknown until 2014 were the names of those who perished in the landing’s First Wave of 1,500 men.
FIRST WAVE DEATHS
Research Professor Peter Stanley ADFA Canberra gave us the number, their names and much about these men. His research now enables comparison of First Wave losses with later and total losses that day. We can also learn how various units fared and where and when their time came to rush ashore thanks to Brigadier Chris Roberts (Rtd ) and the Australian Army History Unit.
Professor Stanley did well to challenge us to name just one Anzac soldier who perished that day, highlighting such oversights. To me he reinforced our “one day of the year” only approach to remembrance despite growing Anzac Day attendances.
First engineer William Turnley survived though retired early medically so he can be farewelled in appreciation of his contribution, then and now, with the hope he and his fellow engineers receive some overdue recognition in the Centenary years.
First Wave deaths can now be identified by country and Australian states. (Incidentally, Professor Stanley’s List of Lost Boys coincides very closely with data in AWM Honour Roll Series 148 (microform) in 1999. Only two deaths recorded in the latter as 1 or 2 May and another four with probable dates e.g. 25-27 April are now recorded as 25 April as a result of his findings).
DEATHS BY COUNTRY/AUSTRALIAN STATE:
SOURCES: Derived from: (1) Professor Stanley’s List of Lost Boys 1914 in “Lost Boys of Anzac”
(2014); (2) AWM Series 148 (microform) Trevor Lawton (1999 unpublished).
Almost one-third of those killed in the First Wave were born overseas, with UK including
Ireland making up one-quarter of the total. These men were going home to fight for their own countries not to fight at Gallipoli. Queensland lost the most 44 with WA 32 and SA 25, when those figures are added to Australian state figures.
FIRST DAY DEATHS
The following listing shows how various units fared against rushed in Turkish reinforcements when their time to land came.
(1) Battalions in action 25 April only: excludes 13 and 15 Bns.
(2) Court of Inquiry could not establish a definite date of death so probable date ranges given e.g. 25-27 April.
(3) The covering force of 4,000 men.
(4) All Landing times are approximate only. Actual times could vary significantly from those stated.
(5) Total includes 6 deaths now ascribed to 25 April
(6) Times landed are uncertain: both am. and pm.(?)
(7) Totals may vary from other rolls (a) disputed or uncertain dates (b) errors and omissions (c) later updates/corrections to AWM Honour Roll. (d) different time period or date range covered.
Includes additional 4, 1 from HQ, 2 from 3 Field Ambulance, 1 First engineers
SOURCE: Derived from: AWM Series 148 (microform). Trevor Lawton (1999 unpublished)
When deaths from 25 April – 2 May (where a court of inquiry sometimes over 18 months later could not establish a definite date) plus died of wounds (DoW) 25 April are included, SA lost the most another 26. The chief reason is the wounded could not be found in the dense scrub. At day’s end Qld still lost the most some 90 while SA and WA had similar losses 56 and 62 respectively.
The Reserve 12Bn losses were higher than either 10 or 11 Bns at 73.
Almost half of each of the 9, 10 and 11Bns’ losses occurred in the First Wave of the six Coys e.g. 44 out of 90 for Qld, 84 of whom were killed that day. If deaths from died of wounds to 2 May (inconclusive dates again) some 140 could be added giving a total of 886, too high a figure to reflect actual first day losses.
Again at day’s end, Victoria suffered the most, the 7 and 6Bns (in order landed) losing 150 and 110 respectively.
The (Jewish) Zion Mule Corps landed 6 officers and 240 other ranks as supplies and water carriers on Anzac Cove up to 1 May 1915. When that component was disbanded and returned, minus mules, to Egypt 20 May 1915 it reportedly lost 15 men and 55 wounded.
These figures suggest a high casualty rate but are difficult to verify.
So too are deaths of naval ratings (“blue jackets”) of the Royal Navy at Anzac Cove difficult to reconcile with those given anecdotally in Anzac accounts e.g. the midshipman killed after handing AG “Gertie” Butler his satchel on landing. Recent research overseas with more required as acknowledged yields only 6 Royal Navy deaths in the second squadron.
Similarly the numbers killed in the boats or drowned on landing will never be known. There are no facts to match against the somewhat fictional (like AB Facey’s landing) accounts.
To give the Official Historian the last say on the Landing “Neither then nor anytime later was the beach the inferno of bursting shells, barbed wire entanglements and falling men that has sometime been described or painted”.
Finally losses each day in the landing period as defined by him did not approach those of first day losses of Bns in action that day until 2 May 1915. On that day, 16Bn (WA) lost 151, 2Bn 102 and 1Bn (both NSW) 64, 317 out of some 450 deaths. These 450 deaths do not include deaths from 13 and 15Bns. Thus the 450 figure shown should not be construed as total deaths for 2 May 1915.
THE SPIRIT LIVES.
Yet we cannot remember what we do not yet know or have forgotten.
The Official History of Australia in the War 1914-18 Volume I. The Story of Anzac
by CEW Bean (1 & 4 edition)
Australian War Memorial, National Archives and National Library of Australia
microform and digitised records etc
Naval-history.net for Royal Navy deaths: Zion Mule Corps various websites
Professor Peter Stanley, Catherine Job, “Amazing” Jack Moore, son of Anzac Jack,
Terence King, belatedly Vance Kelly
My son Stephen for keying over 2+ years endless drafts…and yes, Stephen there is
still one more…this is it!
Trevor Lawton Canberra, December 2015
(Thus ends my “Magnum Opeless” sparked over a quarter of a century ago by happenstance: two letters to the Editor. In that context, “make
or break” seems apt to describe my efforts in finding answers to the questions those letters raised). TWL 2015
When 209 Sapper William Cridland enlisted in 1914 , it is likely he was unaware of his ancestral history. William was a convict descendant, today considered Australian royalty, and when he enlisted with the Engineers in the AIF he was certainly unaware of his future place in Australian history… as a legendary ANZAC.
Considerable distinctions for a young man by today’s standards. But William was a modest man and would not have cared much for titles and labels. However as his life continued to take many turns, he would add one more distinction, the title of MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) , a well deserved Royal Honour for his outstanding civil service after the war.
William Charles Hall Cridland was a great Australian, a man who after the war dedicated much of his life to preserving the memory of the men who had made the ultimate sacrifice, and the future welfare of the returned soldiers. Ironically his own story and memory has faded with time, but is now reignited and now retold for generations of Australian’s to remember this extraordinary man.
At Gallipoli on landing day he had witnessed fellow sappers and soldiers die and a few weeks later had to bury his close friend 54Henry Fairnham. He also had to watch helplessly as young 21 Len Gatty lay motionless in no- mans land during the battle of Lone Pine. William lost another close mate and would later take special care to let Len’s people back home know of the circumstances that led to Len’s brave sacrifice.
The compassion and deep feeling for his fellow soldiers during Gallipoli no doubt laid the foundation for the path he would later follow and his dedicated civil service after the war.
In 1930 William would later give his account of the landing on Gallipoli and described having the honour of being one of the first to land on the shore.
The Landing: First Clash with Turks
(By William Cridland, 1st Field Coy. Engrs., A.I.F., and President, T.B. Soldiers’ Association.)
“How many pause to give thought to that gallant band who landed on the shores of the Aegean Sea on April 25, 1915, placing Australia in such high esteem throughout the world?
The transports and convoys of the Anzac Armada concentrated at Albany, whence they sailed on November 1, 1914, and the troops were landed in Egypt early in December.
All troops were assembled at Lemnos, the advanced base, and on the evening of April 24 the assaulting units were taken on board transports and warships to the Gulf of Saros.
On arrival they were transshipped on to barges to be taken Inshore. A. and B. Company, of the 9th, 10th, and 11th Battalions were chosen as a covering party, and 20 sappers, N.C.O.’s and an officer each from Nos. 1, 2 and 3 sections of the 1st Field Coy. Engineers were chosen to go in as a demolition party with the covering party. I had the honour of being one of the chosen of No. 1 section, and we had to go in with Aand B of the 9th Bn. My section and the 9th Bn. were very fortunate in that we went from Lemnos to the hopping off place in the H.M.S. Queen, the flagship of the Mediterranean Fleet.
All ranks aboard treated us with the usual British naval hospitality, and we were all able to get a decent sleep in bunks, and, on waking, a hot bath and a jolly good feed. Then, to cap all, the canteen was thrown open to us, and the sailors packed us with their issue of chocolate. In the early hours of the morning came the clear but low order to fall in. All lights were out, and the night was pitch black. Each man’s load was evened up as well as could be, so I’ll mention what I had – the usual full marching order, not forgetting rifle and bayonet, 250 rounds (the dinkum stuff, too), emergency rations, pick, shovel, wire-cutters, one dozen sand bags, and a case of gun cotton. How we managed to go down the rope ladders into the barges, then through the water and up the sandy beach, God alone knows, for I don’t, as each barge had its full complement.
At last all barges were ready, and we were taken in tow by steam pinnaces. The moon had disappeared prior to our leaving the Ship, but, looking back, we could see the black forms of the battleship following in our wake ready to cover our attack. Here we were at last launching out into the unknown, but it was a long-looked for event, after over eight months’ hard, rigorous training at home, on board ship, in Egypt, and at Lemnos.
However, our thoughts were suddenly checked by the report of a solitary rifle shot away up in the hills. Every man realised that the supreme moment had arrived, and presently Hell was let
loose, but so far there was only one side having a go. Full speed ahead raced the pinnace towing the barges, then, swinging clear, left us travelling inshore. Now, the little middies, standing erect, grim, determined and heroic, directed the barges, swinging them clear of one another. Lieut. Mather, realising that the barges afforded no protection from the murderous rain of lead from rifles, machine guns, and artillery, told us to go overboard and make the beach. His advice was promptly followed. We were, of necessity, compelled to gain what cover was offering, in order to take a spell, for, after struggling through about 40 yards of water and then up the beach with our load, we were somewhat blown. This, as near as I can remember, was in the vicinity of 0.420 o’clock. After a very short breather Col. Lee reminded us of the job on hand. Now was our turn, and, with fixed bayonets (not forgetting the one in the tunnel), we started off up the hill, dragging ourselves up with the assistance of the undergrowth in places. Eventually we gained the top, and became subjected to fire from all directions, and I think all our casualties there were caused by snipers and shrapnel. There were about seven of us in a group, and we decided to move with caution, for some of our own cobbers coming up behind could very easily take us for Turks, for we were more like ragged tramps than anything else.
Our decision proved a blessing, not only to ourselves, but to those coming up, for, lying hidden as we were, we began picking off the Turks – some at very close range, too. As our numbers increased we began to move forward, till a messenger came up with an order that all engineers had to report back and commence the establishment of a line of defence, and cut steps up the cliff so that travelling would be made easier. It is difficult to remember the position of the job I had to carry out, that of cutting steps in the hill, but, as near as I can judge; it was that steep portion leading to Russell Top. Whilst engaged on this task, General Birdwood stood talking to me for a while, and was nearly sniped. On a later occasion he informed me that it was an occasion he would never forget.
From this job I went up the hill to assist in some trench running, and as soon as I got there a sniper got busy from across the gully; but he did not reign long, as one of our chaps sent him to Allah. That evening my section, in charge of Lieut. Mather, had a job of trench running somewhere up Shrapnel Gully, and, considering the incessant blaze of rifle and machine gun fire all night, it was a wonder that any of us were left.
When one considers the geographical formation of the country, it is amazing to think that we ever got a footing on the Peninsula at all. To some people the landing at Gallipoli is merely something that happened in the distant past, but to many it is the most sacred day of the year.
I know many who took part in the landing who travel hundreds of miles for the Memorial Service on Anzac Day, and then spend the rest of the day with their old unit cobbers.
That is the Anzac spirit, and it will last while ever there is an Anzac living.”
Source: W. Cridland, ‘The Landing: First Clash with Turks’, Reveille, Sydney, RSS&AILA, NSW Branch, 1930
No doubt one of William’s proudest day’s was the landing at Gallipoli, but nearly twenty years later as he stood atop the pediment of the newly built Anzac Memorial in Sydney’s Hyde Park on the 24th November 1934 , as President of the T.B. Sailors and Soldiers’ Association of NSW and a Trustee of the new memorial, he must have been even prouder with his post war achievements and being instrumental in preserving the memory of those who served in the war.
The Anzac Memorial was officially dedicated and opened by His Royal Highness, the Duke of Gloucester on 24 November 1934. The original wreath laid at the opening ceremony by the Duke of Gloucester is still displayed in the Memorial’s Hall of Memory.
The Memorial’s mission statement was:
• to maintain and conserve the ANZAC Memorial as the principal State War Memorial in New South Wales
• to preserve the memory of those who have served in war
• to collect, preserve, display and research military historical material and information relating to the New South Wales citizens who served their country in war or in peace keeping activities.
The Opening Ceremony
Photo by Sam Hood, Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales – ( William Cridland would have been present on top of the pediment with the Duke of Gloucester and other dignitaries in this photo)
The newspapers reported on this glorious day, and William had the proud honour of lunching and enjoying the spirit of the occasion in the Dukes presence and the honour of reciting the famous words from Laurence Binyon’s “Ode of Remembrance” before the toasts and speaches…….the following is an extract from the Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Monday 26 November 1934 describing the events of the day
SPIRIT OF ANZAC
150,000 See Duke Pay His Tribute
UNVEILING OF MEMORIAL
Formality Forsaken When Ex-Servicemen Entertain Duke at Lunch
In the presence of 150,000 persons the Duke of Gloucester .’in Sydney on Saturday unveiled the memorial to the men and women of New South Wales who served in the Great War.
Returned Men’s Luncheon
The Duke of Gloucester was entertained at luncheon in the Town Hall this after noon by the Returned Soldiers and Sailors’ Imperial League of Australia (New South Wales branch), the T.B. Sailors and Soldiers’ Association, and the Limbless Soldiers’ Association. About 1000 persons attended, and the gathering was successful in every way. Free from formality, as gatherings of returned men generally are, his Royal Highness enjoyed to-day’s luncheon immensely, and the ex servicemen appreciated the spirit in which the Duke entered into the proceedings. The chair was occupied by the President of the New South Wales branch of the R.S.S.I.L.A. (MIr. L. A. Robb, C.1M.G.). Before the toasts were to begin the President of the T.B. Sailors and Soldiers’ Association (Mr. W. Cridland) called on the gathering to stand in silence in memory of departed comrades. The silence was broken when Mr. Cridland recited the stirring lines of Binyon-
“They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning,
We will remember them.”
On the 1st January 1936 William Charles Hall Cridland was awarded an MBE for his civil service, an award considered long overdue and voiced as such by the “Truth” newspaper when they predicted in December of 1935 that he was a certainty for a C.B.E………………
Those Whom the King Delights To Honor
THEIR NAMES WILL BE FEW
” ‘Truth’ names as a certainty for minor honors Mr. W. Cridland, president of the T.B. Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Association. His activities have been so considerable and so successful, and he has been overlooked for so long that nothing short of a C.B.E. would seem to fill the bill.”
Truth Newspaper – Sydney, NSW Sunday 29 December 1935.
This is an original extract from William Cridland’s Biography which will be added to his own page soon.
The following news article was written by S.W. who’s identity remains a mystery however he was very likely a WW1 veteran convalescing at the home of 147 Spr Frank Cluett and his wife Mabel. It is a wonderful tribute to a fine couple who despite their own difficulties after the war, openly shared their home helping others in need.
DIGGER OF BALMORAL
And His Fox Terrier
Article published:- The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate (NSW), Thur 28 Jul 1938
“In a cottage facing the Balmoral Beach lives Digger Frank Cluett and his wife. Frank is paying the price of war, being confined to his bed and chair. He is a born gentleman, and is admired by all who know him. His popularity may be judged by the throngs of fine young men who constantly visit him. Any time during the day a group of lads can be seen by his bedside or chair, and his words of advice, his sense of humour and the undoubted love that these lads have for this Digger make one think what a fine example of humanity this man is, and what a wonderful effect he is having on the lives of these youths. (In his early life he devoted most of his time to training of youths in seafaring.) Frank is the owner of a fox terrier which shows his appreciation for his master in the following manner:
AN UNPLEASANT AWAKENING
During the earlier hours of the morning the foxie leaves Frank’s bedside, and about 8 o’clock returns with a piece of meat (which he has evidently rescued from a garbage tin) and jumps on his master’s bed. If he is asleep the dog drops it on his pillow, but if Frank is awake he places it on his chest. If nothing else wakes Frank, the high odor of his dog’s tribute does. The same thing happens between 12 and 1. Sometimes the dog secures a double supply on his daily search, and in that case he buries the surplus, which is unearthed when the foxie has had a fruitless search. When Frank is enjoying a visit from his friends, the dog runs about the house and barks continuously – but should the Digger be asleep the dog can never be heard. I lived for two weeks in the same house as this soldier and can vouch for the accuracy of this statement.”
20 Alexander Finnie was a 21 year old sheet metal worker and was employed by the Randwick Tramway department. His proud parents living at Botany were Alexander James and Ida Jane (nee Bullock). Alexander also had an older sister who unfortunately died in 1911.
Alex served almost 3 years in the 1st Field Company Engineers and had a long stay at Gallipoli up to the 18th August. A near miss from a shell blast and gas poisoning meant that he was transferred to hospital in Alexandria, quite sick and suffering from deafness. Like many others Alex was keen to recover and get back into the fray, and he did, but this time he would do it from the sky as a flying officer.
Alex had transferred to Flying school in England and graduated as a flying officer and was appointed 2nd Lieut and posted to the Australian Flying Corp. Now wearing his wings he proceeded overseas to France and reported for duty with the No 4 Squadron AFC, the last squadron to be formed during the first World War.
The 4th Squadron had arrived in France in December 1917 and established itself at Bruay France and operated in support of the British 1st Army, undertaking offensive patrols and escorting reconnaissance machines.
Towards the end of February 1918 the squadron was made up of 24 flying machines, considerably enhancing its capacity for offensive operations.
March 1918 saw an increase in the 4th squadron’s ground attacks and offensive patrols, including a notable engagement with elements of Manfred von Richthofen’s “Flying Circus” on 21 March, during which five enemy machines were downed in an attack led by Captain Arthur Henry Cobby , who would become the AFC’s number one flying ace .
No. 4 Squadron claimed more “kills” than any other AFC unit, 199 enemy aircraft destroyed and 33 enemy balloons were destroyed or driven down.
In May of 1918 the Squadron had moved from Bruay to Clairmarais North and the 4th squadron was heavily involved in strafing and bombing operations in support of the retreating Allied ground forces.
On the 22nd May 1918 Lieut. Finnie was on his usual offensive and balloon patrol in his Sopwith Camel No. D1924. Enemy observation balloons were stationed thousands of feet in the air and tethered to the ground and fearcly protected by machine guns and anti-aircraft artillery known as “Archie”.
Even with incendiary bullets the gas in the balloons was hard to ignite and downing a balloon took a lot of shooting while running a gauntlet of ground-fire and keeping a sharp eye out for enemy scouts trying to protect the balloons.
On this day while diving and firing on enemy balloons Lieut. Alex Finnie collided with fellow flyer Lieut.G Nowland. They both spun to the ground five miles over enemy lines, their planes falling to pieces as they crashed to the ground at Neuf Berquin and both men were killed.
The following eye witness accounts describe the action that saw Alexander Finnie meet his end. “ We were firing on enemy balloons. I was flying with him and saw him go down. He collided with another chap and they both fell from about 10,000 ft over the German lines. I should certainly say there was little hope of his being alive. I wrote to his people.” Informant – F/Lieut R.C Nelson 4th Squadron A.F.C “I knew Lieutenant Finnie in the Squadron. I saw him killed on the 22nd May 1918. The Squadron was then engaged in an offensive patrol near Estaires. I saw Lieutenant Finnie and Lieutenant Nowland attack a German captive balloon. Their machines collided and Lieutenant Finnie’s machine fell. “ Informant – Captain Roy King 4th Squadron A.F.C
Alexander’s father was notified in 1921 that his son Alex Finnie was exhumed and later reburied in an Imperial War grave at Pont-du-Hem Military Cemetery (Plot II, Row F, Grave No. 19), La Gorque, France.