144 Harold Stephen White was born in1891 in Tumut NSW to parents William Henry S White and Emily Sophia Watson.Harold had four sisters , Edna, Freda , Stella and Marjorie and two younger brothers Allan and William Rowland White.
Harold was a survey draughtsman working for the Railway Department of NSW when he enlisted on the 19th August 1914. William, his younger brother enlisted in 1916 and the two brothers would later join up together in the 1st Pioneer Battalion.
Harold was with the 1st FCE landing party at Gallipoli and in late June, with a shell wound to his wrist was hospitalized for a time and then returned to Gallipoli, but most likely prematurely as his hand became septic and in August 1915 he returned to hospital in Mudros.
His father William had read in the ‘London Times ‘ that a Harold White with the matching rank as his son had been killed in an Aeroplane accident . Hopefully the family received a prompt reply and the good news that it was not their Harold as he was actually in France, alive and well and was now a NCO Sargeant with the 1st FCE.
In August 1916 while still in France he was transferred to the 1st Pioneer Battalion and promoted to 2nd Lieut. And later Lieutenant by the year end. He continued to see action in the field in France up to January 1918 , when once again he was transferred . This time his appointment as Lieut. was terminated and he was appointed a full commission in the Indian Army with the 1 KGO Bengal Sappers & Miners and fought in the Afghan wars.
In 1920 he briefly returned to Australia and married Winifred Mabel Grace nee Hilliard in Ashfield NSW . They both returned to India , but pregnancy and illness meant Harold resigned from his commission and returned to Australia and shortly after their son Norman was born in 1922 and in 1924 their daughter Shirley was born.
Initially they had settled down to family life living at ‘Roorkee’ 80 Austin st, Lane Cove. They had named their home after the military quarters of the Bengal Sappers & Miners in Roorkee, Uttarakhand India. Harold and Winifred were together in India for only a short time, but it must have captured their imagination and left its imprint on them both.
Harold returned to work for the NSW Railways as a member of the Engineering staff and joined the Militia until 1936. When the second world war broke out, Harold re- enlisted and was back with the 2/1 Pioneers. His son Norman had already been in the Navy at age 13 as a cadet at Flinders Naval College and in 1939 had already seen action at sea in the Middle East.
Harold unfortunately was killed in action at Tobruk on May 1941 . Our Gallipoli landing veteran age 48 and original sapper with the 1st FCE didn’t have to return to war, perhaps his wife Winifred even pleaded with him not to return, he had seen and done enough. But clearly it was in Harold’s blood, he had a love of the military service and so was the case with their only son Norman.
Harold was buried in Tobruk War Cemetery, Al Butnan, Libya – Plot: 5. K. 1.
His son Norman would hear news of his father’s death while preparing for his posting as Sub- Lieutenant on the HMAS Perth which was later engaged in battles in the Java Sea. The HMAS Perth was sunk by the Japanese naval force and later Norman was captured by the Japanese and taken prisoner.
Winifred and Shirley back home must have been devastated to discover firstly the news of Harold’s death and then shortly after to discover Norman missing for six months and then reported as taken a prisoner of war.
Harold White had dedicated a large amount of his adult life serving his country, surviving the Great War, serving in the Indian Army when the great war had finished and making the ultimate sacrifice in World War 2 . His legacy as an original Anzac and his diverse war record is a proud one. Unfortunately he did not live to see his son Norman leave his own mark in life and continue the family tradition of dedication and service to Australia and later showing a rare character that Harold and Winifred would have been enormously proud. Norman would be awarded ‘The Order of the Rising Sun with Gold and Silver Rays’ in recognition of his work in rebuilding Australian-Japanese relations. He was also awarded an OAM – (Medal of the Order of Australia) for his services to international relations through the promotion of cultural, business and education interests between Australia and Japan.
34 Sergeant Alexander Logan was born in Hawick Roxborough Scotland in 1889 to parents Charles Logan and Margaret nee Grieve, he also had two brothers and four sisters.
When Alex was 20 years of age he made the voyage to Australia, arriving on his own, in Townsville Queensland in 1910 on the vessel ‘Oswesty Grange’.
Alex was well qualified for his role in the 1st FCE. When he enlisted at Victoria barracks Sydney he was 25 and declared he was a fitter by trade with 4 years service in the Kings own Scottish Borderers and whilst in Australia he had served for 2 years in the Royal Australian Engineers and held rank as sergeant.
On Landing Day, Gallipoli , Alex was wounded, a gunshot wound to left side of his neck and ‘left supra scapula fossa’, the bullet remaining lodged in his neck for 12 hours. The bullet was finally removed leaving his left arm partially paralysed. He was medically discharged and returned home on the ‘Horatio’ the same transport ship as fellow original 211 Sgt Charles Kewley also returning home and although Charles Kewley was on the list as returning back to Sydney, he never actually made it. Charles disembarked ill in Victoria and later died in hospital.
The papers all reported on the arrival in Sydney of the third Contingent of wounded men from Gallipoli, and a rousing welcome was planned, with the details such as giving “each man a bunch of wattle and a packet of cigarettes”.
WOUNDED ARRIVE TO-DAY
“The mother State of the Commonwealth will to-day accord welcome to the third contingent of men returning from tho fighting on the Gallipoli Peninsula who have been returned wounded or sick.
The vessel bringing them is expected to enter the Heads at 9.30, and to warp in to No. 1 wharf. Woolloomooloo, an hour later. Every preparation has been made for the reception and comfort of the men, of whom only five are cot cases. The remaining 131 will be motored to No. 4 General Hospital, Randwick. There are also on board 30 wounded and sick, including one cot case, for Queensland, who will be despatched to the northern State later in the day.
The route of the procession from the wharf to the hospital will be via New-street to College-street, to Oxford-street, up Oxford- street to Centennial Park, entering at Queen- street gate; through the park, via Palm- avenue, to Darley-road, then along Randwick- road to its destination.” – Source: – The Sydney Morning Herald , Monday 30 August 1915
On the 20th May 1916 Alex married Mary Slapoffski and in the same month he also re-enlisted. He was immediately attached to the Engineering Officers School of Instruction at Moore Park and later embarked for England with the 3rd Pioneer Batallion. All seemed to be going well for Alex until his old Gallipoli wound started to cause him recurring pain and again partial paralysis. Alex returned home once again to Australia and his wife Mary on the 16th April 1918.
After the war many of the remaining originals maintained their close friendships and for many originals such as Alex , William Cridland, Sydney Lalor, Fred Wicks, William Burnett, George Chisholm, and Harold White, they made reunions a formal and official gathering, registering the reunion organisation and electing a president, secretary and treasurer and committee members.
In 1967 Alex was living at…where else but 44 Soldiers Avenue, Harboard Sydney and he later died in 1969, he was 80 years of age. His letter of application for his Gallipoli medal is shown below
Sources and Acnowledgments:-
Anzac March Photo – Courtesy Gail McLoughlin ” Private Collection” Shoosmith family
When 209 Sapper William Cridland enlisted in 1914 , it is likely he was unaware of his ancestral history. William was a convict descendant, today considered Australian royalty, and when he enlisted with the Engineers in the AIF he was certainly unaware of his future place in Australian history… as a legendary ANZAC.
Considerable distinctions for a young man by today’s standards. But William was a modest man and would not have cared much for titles and labels. However as his life continued to take many turns, he would add one more distinction, the title of MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) , a well deserved Royal Honour for his outstanding civil service after the war.
William Charles Hall Cridland was a great Australian, a man who after the war dedicated much of his life to preserving the memory of the men who had made the ultimate sacrifice, and the future welfare of the returned soldiers. Ironically his own story and memory has faded with time, but is now reignited and now retold for generations of Australian’s to remember this extraordinary man.
At Gallipoli on landing day he had witnessed fellow sappers and soldiers die and a few weeks later had to bury his close friend 54Henry Fairnham. He also had to watch helplessly as young 21 Len Gatty lay motionless in no- mans land during the battle of Lone Pine. William lost another close mate and would later take special care to let Len’s people back home know of the circumstances that led to Len’s brave sacrifice.
The compassion and deep feeling for his fellow soldiers during Gallipoli no doubt laid the foundation for the path he would later follow and his dedicated civil service after the war.
In 1930 William would later give his account of the landing on Gallipoli and described having the honour of being one of the first to land on the shore.
The Landing: First Clash with Turks
(By William Cridland, 1st Field Coy. Engrs., A.I.F., and President, T.B. Soldiers’ Association.)
“How many pause to give thought to that gallant band who landed on the shores of the Aegean Sea on April 25, 1915, placing Australia in such high esteem throughout the world?
The transports and convoys of the Anzac Armada concentrated at Albany, whence they sailed on November 1, 1914, and the troops were landed in Egypt early in December.
All troops were assembled at Lemnos, the advanced base, and on the evening of April 24 the assaulting units were taken on board transports and warships to the Gulf of Saros.
On arrival they were transshipped on to barges to be taken Inshore. A. and B. Company, of the 9th, 10th, and 11th Battalions were chosen as a covering party, and 20 sappers, N.C.O.’s and an officer each from Nos. 1, 2 and 3 sections of the 1st Field Coy. Engineers were chosen to go in as a demolition party with the covering party. I had the honour of being one of the chosen of No. 1 section, and we had to go in with Aand B of the 9th Bn. My section and the 9th Bn. were very fortunate in that we went from Lemnos to the hopping off place in the H.M.S. Queen, the flagship of the Mediterranean Fleet.
All ranks aboard treated us with the usual British naval hospitality, and we were all able to get a decent sleep in bunks, and, on waking, a hot bath and a jolly good feed. Then, to cap all, the canteen was thrown open to us, and the sailors packed us with their issue of chocolate. In the early hours of the morning came the clear but low order to fall in. All lights were out, and the night was pitch black. Each man’s load was evened up as well as could be, so I’ll mention what I had – the usual full marching order, not forgetting rifle and bayonet, 250 rounds (the dinkum stuff, too), emergency rations, pick, shovel, wire-cutters, one dozen sand bags, and a case of gun cotton. How we managed to go down the rope ladders into the barges, then through the water and up the sandy beach, God alone knows, for I don’t, as each barge had its full complement.
At last all barges were ready, and we were taken in tow by steam pinnaces. The moon had disappeared prior to our leaving the Ship, but, looking back, we could see the black forms of the battleship following in our wake ready to cover our attack. Here we were at last launching out into the unknown, but it was a long-looked for event, after over eight months’ hard, rigorous training at home, on board ship, in Egypt, and at Lemnos.
However, our thoughts were suddenly checked by the report of a solitary rifle shot away up in the hills. Every man realised that the supreme moment had arrived, and presently Hell was let
loose, but so far there was only one side having a go. Full speed ahead raced the pinnace towing the barges, then, swinging clear, left us travelling inshore. Now, the little middies, standing erect, grim, determined and heroic, directed the barges, swinging them clear of one another. Lieut. Mather, realising that the barges afforded no protection from the murderous rain of lead from rifles, machine guns, and artillery, told us to go overboard and make the beach. His advice was promptly followed. We were, of necessity, compelled to gain what cover was offering, in order to take a spell, for, after struggling through about 40 yards of water and then up the beach with our load, we were somewhat blown. This, as near as I can remember, was in the vicinity of 0.420 o’clock. After a very short breather Col. Lee reminded us of the job on hand. Now was our turn, and, with fixed bayonets (not forgetting the one in the tunnel), we started off up the hill, dragging ourselves up with the assistance of the undergrowth in places. Eventually we gained the top, and became subjected to fire from all directions, and I think all our casualties there were caused by snipers and shrapnel. There were about seven of us in a group, and we decided to move with caution, for some of our own cobbers coming up behind could very easily take us for Turks, for we were more like ragged tramps than anything else.
Our decision proved a blessing, not only to ourselves, but to those coming up, for, lying hidden as we were, we began picking off the Turks – some at very close range, too. As our numbers increased we began to move forward, till a messenger came up with an order that all engineers had to report back and commence the establishment of a line of defence, and cut steps up the cliff so that travelling would be made easier. It is difficult to remember the position of the job I had to carry out, that of cutting steps in the hill, but, as near as I can judge; it was that steep portion leading to Russell Top. Whilst engaged on this task, General Birdwood stood talking to me for a while, and was nearly sniped. On a later occasion he informed me that it was an occasion he would never forget.
From this job I went up the hill to assist in some trench running, and as soon as I got there a sniper got busy from across the gully; but he did not reign long, as one of our chaps sent him to Allah. That evening my section, in charge of Lieut. Mather, had a job of trench running somewhere up Shrapnel Gully, and, considering the incessant blaze of rifle and machine gun fire all night, it was a wonder that any of us were left.
When one considers the geographical formation of the country, it is amazing to think that we ever got a footing on the Peninsula at all. To some people the landing at Gallipoli is merely something that happened in the distant past, but to many it is the most sacred day of the year.
I know many who took part in the landing who travel hundreds of miles for the Memorial Service on Anzac Day, and then spend the rest of the day with their old unit cobbers.
That is the Anzac spirit, and it will last while ever there is an Anzac living.”
Source: W. Cridland, ‘The Landing: First Clash with Turks’, Reveille, Sydney, RSS&AILA, NSW Branch, 1930
No doubt one of William’s proudest day’s was the landing at Gallipoli, but nearly twenty years later as he stood atop the pediment of the newly built Anzac Memorial in Sydney’s Hyde Park on the 24th November 1934 , as President of the T.B. Sailors and Soldiers’ Association of NSW and a Trustee of the new memorial, he must have been even prouder with his post war achievements and being instrumental in preserving the memory of those who served in the war.
The Anzac Memorial was officially dedicated and opened by His Royal Highness, the Duke of Gloucester on 24 November 1934. The original wreath laid at the opening ceremony by the Duke of Gloucester is still displayed in the Memorial’s Hall of Memory.
The Memorial’s mission statement was:
• to maintain and conserve the ANZAC Memorial as the principal State War Memorial in New South Wales
• to preserve the memory of those who have served in war
• to collect, preserve, display and research military historical material and information relating to the New South Wales citizens who served their country in war or in peace keeping activities.
The Opening Ceremony
Photo by Sam Hood, Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales – ( William Cridland would have been present on top of the pediment with the Duke of Gloucester and other dignitaries in this photo)
The newspapers reported on this glorious day, and William had the proud honour of lunching and enjoying the spirit of the occasion in the Dukes presence and the honour of reciting the famous words from Laurence Binyon’s “Ode of Remembrance” before the toasts and speaches…….the following is an extract from the Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, Monday 26 November 1934 describing the events of the day
SPIRIT OF ANZAC
150,000 See Duke Pay His Tribute
UNVEILING OF MEMORIAL
Formality Forsaken When Ex-Servicemen Entertain Duke at Lunch
In the presence of 150,000 persons the Duke of Gloucester .’in Sydney on Saturday unveiled the memorial to the men and women of New South Wales who served in the Great War.
Returned Men’s Luncheon
The Duke of Gloucester was entertained at luncheon in the Town Hall this after noon by the Returned Soldiers and Sailors’ Imperial League of Australia (New South Wales branch), the T.B. Sailors and Soldiers’ Association, and the Limbless Soldiers’ Association. About 1000 persons attended, and the gathering was successful in every way. Free from formality, as gatherings of returned men generally are, his Royal Highness enjoyed to-day’s luncheon immensely, and the ex servicemen appreciated the spirit in which the Duke entered into the proceedings. The chair was occupied by the President of the New South Wales branch of the R.S.S.I.L.A. (MIr. L. A. Robb, C.1M.G.). Before the toasts were to begin the President of the T.B. Sailors and Soldiers’ Association (Mr. W. Cridland) called on the gathering to stand in silence in memory of departed comrades. The silence was broken when Mr. Cridland recited the stirring lines of Binyon-
“They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning,
We will remember them.”
On the 1st January 1936 William Charles Hall Cridland was awarded an MBE for his civil service, an award considered long overdue and voiced as such by the “Truth” newspaper when they predicted in December of 1935 that he was a certainty for a C.B.E………………
Those Whom the King Delights To Honor
THEIR NAMES WILL BE FEW
” ‘Truth’ names as a certainty for minor honors Mr. W. Cridland, president of the T.B. Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Association. His activities have been so considerable and so successful, and he has been overlooked for so long that nothing short of a C.B.E. would seem to fill the bill.”
Truth Newspaper – Sydney, NSW Sunday 29 December 1935.
This is an original extract from William Cridland’s Biography which will be added to his own page soon.
“Went in close to land rafts- hardly dropped anchor before the Turks had our range and were lobbing shells all round and over us, some only a few feet away- had to scoot further out of range. Afternoon, two boats of wounded, 30 came aboard (Hospital ships full) – some badly wounded, the boats looked like a butcher’s shop…” 160 Dvr. Percy Thompson
Not a typical day expected by a skilled driver of a team of horses and wagons……………..but as the following story reveals the Drivers of the 1st FCE were very much among the action and they would certainly make a name for themselves on the western front.
Scott Wilson a fellow writer, researcher and war history scholar has a number of stories published on WW1 veterans including an original member of the 1st FCE 160 Percy Robert Thompson. Scott has brought Percy’s diary’s and war experiences with the 1st FCE back to life in four chapters, Two of which have been reproduced here with his kind permission…. An excellent read.
211 Charles William Kewley was one of the tallest men in the company standing at 6ft 1 ½”. Charles, a tall Englishman, was born in Douglas, on the Isle of Man and had served in the Boer War in 1898, seeing service in South Africa and Somaliland. He had served a total of 12 years with the Royal Engineers in the British Imperial army.
When Charles enlisted in September 1914 he was nearly 36, an engineer and married to Kate Kewley( nee Ponting) and living at 386 Bourke st Surry Hills, NSW.
Charles with many years of military experience behind him was promoted to Sergeant prior to embarkation to Egypt.
On the 10th May 1915 Charles was wounded in the foot, the war record neither clear on the circumstances or the location, however he was transferred to Heliopolis and eventually transported back to Australia on board the “Horatio”. Also on board was fellow engineer Sgt. 34 Alexander Logan.
During the return journey home, his health was seriously compromised and Charles was ill with acute pneumonia. The vessel arrives in Melbourne on the 27th August 1915 and he was immediately transferred to the Base hospital in St. Kilda, Victoria and within a few days, on the 1st September 1915, sadly Charles dies from exhaustion and finally heart failure.
His wife Kate made a trip to the UK many years later in 1927 perhaps to see her family and the family and relatives of Charles and then returned to Australia. In 1937 she was still at the original address in Surry Hills when Charles enlisted back in 1914. It appears that Charles and Kate had no children during their marriage.
Coburg Pine Ridge Cemetery, Victoria, Australia
The following is the GWGC transcript relating to the Coburg Pine Ridge Cemetery……’ Country: Australia Locality: Victoria Identified Casualties: 191 Location Information Coburg is north of the city of Melbourne. The General Cemetery is in Bell Street, East Coburg, 6 miles from Melbourne. Historical Information There are now over 160 Commonwealth burials of the 1914-1918 war here and over 20 of the 1939-1945 war located throughout the cemetery.’
On this day Remembering – 211 Sgt. Charles William Kewley
Location on the Roll of Honour
Charles William Kewley’s name is located at panel 24 in the Commemorative Area at the Australian War Memorial (as indicated by the poppy on the plan).
Roll of Honour name projection
Charles William Kewley’s name will be projected onto the exterior of the Hall of Memory on:
Mon 28 September, 2015 at 3:15 am
Thu 26 November, 2015 at 10:32 pm
Mon 25 January, 2016 at 12:50 am
Wed 23 March, 2016 at 2:45 am
Tue 10 May, 2016 at 7:33 pm
Wed 22 June, 2016 at 1:22 am
Wed 3 August, 2016 at 7:00 pm
Wed 21 September, 2016 at 2:28 am
Sources: AWM, NLA, NAA,CWGC Certificate and transcript
19 year old “Billy” as he was best known, was a Carpenter from Paddington and was already serving in the 5th Field engineers prior to enlistment.
119 Spr. William “Billy” Pitt gave his account of the landing at Gallipoli and the work accomplished by the engineers from a Cairo Hospital to his parents in Paddington, NSW which was later published in the Sydney Morning Herald………….
THE SAPPER’S PART
Published in “The Sydney Morning Herald”, Friday 16 July 1915
“The task of removing the wounded was a very formidable one. The engineers where then called out of the firing line, and set to work making a road up the hill to the firing line. We worked for two days and nights without any sleep, but each man knew what the job was for, and worked with all his might. Besides this work we were engaged in building barbed wire entanglements for six nights and we also started a sap towards the Turkish trenches. I worked all one night in wet clothes, and as a result had to be carried out of the firing line to the hospital ship, thence being taken to the El Hayat Hospital, Egypt. The doctor said I was suffering from rheumatism, but I hope to be back in the firing line again in a few weeks.” Source: nla.news-article15590840
After Gallipoli, Billy would later be engaged in the fiercest battles the Australian Imperial Forces had seen at the Western front, and sadly this is where Billy would spend his final days.
Wounded, then declared missing, then later declared “died from wounds received in action”, his body was never found and no place of burial discovered. His remaining personal effects were also lost at sea.